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Original Research

Effect of Honey Intake on Liver Enzymes and Functions

A. E. Alagwu* • S. A. Ezekwe • E. E. Ngwu • N. D. Alagwu

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: honey is consumed both as food and medicine. It is used as alternative medicine to treat burns, cuts, and abscesses in ancient time. It suffered a setback in modern medicine as alternative medicine as it lacked systematic scientific studies. It gained acceptance following its effectiveness where conventional treatments failed. There is a paucity of reports on the effect of honey on liver enzymes and functions. This is aimed at investigating the effect of honey on liver enzymes and function.

Methodology: The animals were separated into 4 groups (n=5). Groups 1 and 2 served as control and were fed with normal rat chow and water. Groups 3 and 4 served as test groups and were fed with rat chow, water, and honey. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Sera from groups 1 and 3 were collected for enzymes determination while bile from groups 2 and 4 was collected after laparotomy and common bile duct cannulation under anesthesia for biochemical analyses

Results: showed that honey has no significant effects on liver enzymes and bile bilirubin levels (P>0.05). Bile secretion rate was significantly reduced in the test compared with control (P<0.05). Bile Na+, HCO3- were not significantly different while bile K+, CL-were significantly reduced in the test compared with control (P<0.05). Bile cholesterol was significantly increased in the test compared with control(P<0.05) while plasma cholesterol was significantly reduced in the test compared with control(P<0.05).

Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that honey did not affect liver enzymes concentration, decreased rate of bile secretion, reduced bile potassium and chloride excretion, increased bile cholesterol excretion and reduced plasma cholesterol level. Read More

To cite this article [Alagwu, A. E., Ezekwe, S. A., Ngwu, E. E., & Alagwu, N. D. (2018). Effect of Honey Intake on Liver Enzymes and Functions. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(8), 8-10]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

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Original Research

Anti-diabetic Activity of Rhizophora mucronata Leaves in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Animal Model

Anjan Adhikari * • Moumita Ray  • Tapas Kumar Sur  • Sharmistha Biswas  • Ranendra Kumar Roy  •  Alok Kumar Hazra  • Anup Kumar Das 

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder, where it is necessary to achieve and maintain good glycemic control. Though various achievements have been made in conventional and herbal medicines as anti-diabetic, there is a need to develop a well-defined treatment to manage the disease along with its multiple complications. Rhizophora mucronata, a true mangrove, abundant in the Sundarban region is traditionally used for its anti-diabetic properties but has very few scientific validations till date. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rhizophora mucronata Lam leaves on Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced Type 2 diabetic rats.

Methods: The mangrove leaves were collected, identified and extracted with ethanol (50%) in the Soxhlet apparatus. Extract treatment was done for 28 consecutive days in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced Type 2 diabetic rats. Body weight, blood glucose profiles were measured along with serum lipid profile and serum insulin. Histological studies of the pancreas were also observed.

Findings: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Rhizophora mucronata Lam leaves significantly reduced the blood glucose level. It also reduced the serum lipids in a dose-independent manner. Regular administration of extract maintained the normal serum insulin level. The study revealed Rhizophora mucronata leaves are a rich source of magnesium content and the Gas chromatographic study showed the presence of Squalene.

Conclusion: Present study revealed the beneficial potential of ahydro-alcoholic extract of Rhizophora mucronata Lam leaves as an anti-hyperglycemic agent having lipid-lowering action along with insulin mimicking property. Further research is required to identify the bioactive component responsible for its potent anti-diabetic action. Read More

To cite this article [Adhikari, A., Ray, M., Sur, T. K., Biswas, S, Roy, R. K., Hazra, A. K., & Das, A. K. (2018). Anti-Diabetic Activity of  Rhizophora Mucronata Leaves in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Animal Model. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(8), 1-7]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

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Original Research

Global Invasion and Phenotypic Plasticity of The Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) Albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), An Invasive Vector of Human Diseases: Review of The Problem and The Evidence​

Ahmed Tabbabi 

Abstract: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is an important vector of viral and parasitic pathogens including dengue and chikungunya viruses. It is actually known as the most threatening invasive species in the world. In recent years these mosquitoes have invaded and adapted to both tropical and temperate climes where have been responsible for large outbreaks of diseases. The success keys of their invasion and establishment are mainly their phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to different environments. Its ecological plasticity and its superior competitive ability were reviewed and discussed based on the available published and unpublished reports. The consequences of their invasion on public health are also highlighted. Further, control measure plans related to the management and diseases transmitted by this invasive vector species are also discussed. Read More

To cite this article [Tabbabi, A. (2018). Global Invasion and Phenotypic Plasticity of The Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) Albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), An Invasive Vector of Human Diseases: Review of The Problem and The Evidence. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(4), 1-7]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

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Original Research

Assessment of Stress Factors for Nursing Student Toward Training in the Critical Areas of Princess Basma Hospital​

Mohammad Abdul Karim Mansour Al Zu’bi* • Ghadeer Ahmad Falah Shawabka

                                                                                        ABSTRACT

Background: Stress has been defined as a barrier to concentration, problem-solving, decision making, and other necessary abilities for students’ learning; it also has some symptoms and illnesses in the students such as depression and anxiety.   

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess Stress for nursing students at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) toward training in the critical areas of Princess Basma Hospital. A study design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used in this study. Setting: conducted in Princess Basma educational hospital in three months from November 2015 until January 2016.  

Materials and Methods: a purposive sample to select the student (103) from three academic levels. An interviewing questionnaire to assess factors of stress related to workload, Factors of stress related to lack of support and involvement, Stress factors related to patient and family and scale of 1 to 5 describe your satisfaction of being a critical area nurse.   

Findings: The study results revealed that shortage of staff (2.17±0.39) and lack of time to spend with the patients (2.01±0.77) also revealed that support from college was the most stressing factor (2.64±0.39) and Results indicate that “patients’ families making unreasonable demand” was the highly estimated stress factors (2.18±0.67). while study sample participants are having a high satisfaction level about becoming a future nurse in the critical areas (2.52±0.60).   

Conclusion: The study concluded that shortage of staff, lack of support from the college, “patients’ families making unreasonable demand” and “being blamed for anything that goes wrong were the most stressing factor for the participants. The study recommended to design and implement health promotion program for all students nursing college at Jordan University of Science and Technology about prevention of Stress factors toward training in the critical areas. Read More

To cite this article [Al Zu’bi, M. A. M. & Shawabka, G. A. F. (2018). Assessment of Stress Factors for Nursing student toward training in the critical areas of Princess Basma Hospital. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(4), 8-12]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937)

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Original Research

Effect of Fears on Psychosocial Adjustments and Self Esteem of Children Aged (12-16) Years​

Mohammad Abdul Karim Mansour Al Zu’bi* • Ghadeer Ahmad Falah Shawabka

                                                                                        ABSTRACT

Background: Fear had been defined as the emergence of symptoms of multiple anxiety as a case of emotional and physical or objective.   

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the fears and their relationship to psychological and social Adjustment and self-esteem in children in the age group of 12 to 16 years of both sexes, male and female, in the Irbid region schools in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.  

Materials and Methods: a cross sectional descriptive study had been performed on a sample of 500 school children ranging in age between 12 to 16 years from the public schools of Irbid governorate, northern of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researcher investigating the socio-demographic factors and the psycho-social adjustment along with Rosenberg self-esteem scale had been administered over the study participants.   

Findings: The study results revealed that 50% of the study participants were having fears that are less than average. While there was almost 0.4% with severe fears, 51% of the sample was within the Pass category of the Psychosocial adjustment, and 57% of the children were passing Self-esteem test. Moreover, findings of the current study had shown that there is a correlation between children fear and their psychosocial adjustment level. About 111 students were characterized as poor psychosocially adjusted, while 134 students showed good to the excellent level of psychosocial adjustment. Socio-cultural factors result showed that the positive significant relationship is detected between residence area (Urban and rural), Income level, parents educational level and occupation.   

Conclusion: study findings conclude that: There was a statistically significant difference in fears among boys and girls, whereas girls exhibited higher fear intensity compared to boy’s sample. There is a significant relation of fears in children aged 12 to 16 years, to their psychosocial adjustment and self-esteem degree. Psychosocial adjustment and self-esteem are correlated positively and significantly affected by socio-economic and socio-cultural factors of the children.   Read More

To cite this article [Al Zu’bi, M. A. M. & Shawabka, G. A. F.  (2018). Effect of Fears on Psychosocial Adjustments and Self Esteem of Children Aged (12-16) Years. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(4), 13-20]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937

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Original Research

Breast Tuberculosis: A Disease not to be Forgotten

Singh K. Sudhir * • Huda Farhanul  • Rao Shalinee  • Pal Shweta 

                                                                                      ABSTRACT

Introduction: Breast tuberculosis is a rare manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis which accounts for less than 0.1% of breast conditions in developed countries but reaches 3–4% in regions where the disease is endemic like India and Africa. It appears mostly in women of reproductive age who are multipara or lactating. The most common presentation is that of a tumor in the breast with or without ulcer or pus discharging sinus. Differential diagnosis includes breast cancer and chronic abscess.

Materials and Methods: We report a case series of breast tuberculosis that were treated in a tertiary center. After a diagnosis of breast tuberculosis based on FNAC and histological finding, all the patients received anti-tubercular treatment and followed monthly to see the response.

Result: On the triple assessment of breast lump, diagnosis of breast tuberculosis was confirmed by FNAC in two patient and Tru-cut biopsy and histological examination in four patients. One patient with biopsy report of necrotizing mastitis was labeled as breast tuberculosis on the basis of clinical suspicion. All patients showed a good response to ATT on monthly follow up.

Conclusion: Although breast tuberculosis is a rare disease and can be misdiagnosed as breast cancer, a high index of clinical suspicion should be kept in mind during evaluation of breast lump, non-healing breast ulcer, and chronic sinuses. Early diagnosis based on clinical features and supplanted by FNAC and Tru-cut biopsy is suggested. Anti-tubercular therapy is effective. Read More

To cite this article [Sudhir, S. K., Farhanul, H., Shalinee, R., & Shweta, P. (2018). Breast Tuberculosis: A Disease not to be Forgotten. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(6), 6-10]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

5

Original Research

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Outcome of Pregnancy among Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic in North Western Nigeria

Abdullahi Umar Adoke * • Constance Egondu Shehu • Emmanuel Ikechukwu Nwobodo  Bissallah Ahmed Ekele  • Anas Sabir  • Amina Gambo Umar 

                                                                                       ABSTRACT

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. It affects 2-10% of pregnancies and there appears to be a rising trend in its prevalence worldwide.

Objective: The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes as well as the outcome of pregnancy among 207 consecutively recruited pregnant women. GDM was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria. All relevant data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was relatively high 7.7%. Advancing maternal age (p=0.000), high parity (p=0.000) and previous history of macrosomia (RR=3.056, CI 1.208-7.728, p=0.015) were risk factors for GDM. Multivariate analysis showed that only advance maternal age as a risk factor was statistically significant across all age (pvalue >0.000).

Conclusion: The outcome of pregnancy was favorable among GDM patients. Thus, multidisciplinary management of GDM patients should be upheld. Read More

To cite this article [Adoke, A. U., Shehu, C. E., Nwobodo, E. I., Ekele, B. A… Umar, A. G. (2018). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Outcome of Pregnancy among Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic in North-Western Nigeria. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(6), 27-32]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

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