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Original Research

Early Diagnosis of Osteopetrosis Type 3 with Neonatal onset with Life-Threatening Complications: A case Report with Review of the Literature

Nawaf Rahi Al-Shammari • Mohamad Hani Temsah • Walaa Al Shuaibi

Abstract. Osteopetrosis Type 3 with Renal Tubular Acidosis (OPTB3) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder. It is manifested clinically with osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), cerebral calcification, and growth retardation. Neonatal onset with life-threatening complications warrants a thorough clinical evaluation with an assessment of specialized tests such as x-ray.  Here, we discuss a rare case of carbonic anhydrase II deficiency syndrome, presenting with poor feeding and thrombocytopenia, in which the diagnosis was initially missed in the first hospitalization. Upon second admission, re-exanimation of the CXR was suggestive of marble bone disease. Further tests confirmed OPTB3. Following conservative management and family counseling, the patient was discharged in a good general condition. In conclusion, this highlight the need of early identification of the disease, as early appropriate treatment is necessary to improve the patient outcome and prevent complications. Read More

To cite this article. [Al-Shammari, N. R., Temsah, M. H. & Al Shuaibi, W. (2020). Early Diagnosis of Osteopetrosis Type 3 with Neonatal onset with Life-Threatening Complications: A case Report with Review of the Literature. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 6(02), 18-20]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

3

Original Research

Maternal Body Composition during Pregnancy, Maternal Outcome & Neonatal Complications

Havagiray R. Chitme * • Dania Ali Al Numani • Miaad Majid Al Dhahri •
Nouf Saif Al Mamari

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well proven that becoming overweight and obese during pregnancy increase complications in mother while delivering and neonates.
Objective: Present study is envisaged to understand the correlation between maternal body composition and complications in mother and neonates.
Methodology: It is a cross sectional longitudinal prospective study carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Oman among 300 randomly selected pregnant women.
Results: Preeclampsia was recorded in 44% of patients and more than 67% of them were having more than one complaint. Maternal BMI, total visceral fat, resting metabolic rate are significantly (p<0.05) impacting neonatal birth weight and APGAR score. Maternal body age is correlated significantly (p<0.05) with birth weight and head circumference. The birth complication cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, and gestational hypertension are significantly correlated with maternal body age, total body fat, and gestational age.
Conclusions: Authors conclude that majority of the pregnant woman in their third trimester suffering from overweight or from high-fat deposition in their bodies are noted to have risks of macrosomia, impaired APGAR score, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension and undergo cesarean delivery. Read More

To cite this article.[Chitme, H., R., Al Numani, D., A., Al Dhahri, M., M., & Al Mamari, N. S. (2019). Maternal Body Composition during Pregnancy, Maternal Outcome & Neonatal Complications. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 5(9), 5-13]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

4

Original Research

Association of Preeclampsia with Obesity

Henna Salman • Naila Hamid • Umema Zafar • Sajjad Marwat • Mamoon Khan

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of obesity with preeclampsia in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province of Pakistan.
Methodology: This is a case-control study conducted in Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) and Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC) Peshawar. Forty pregnant females (aged 15-35 years), with a diagnosis of preeclampsia during their third trimester of pregnancy were taken as cases. The basic diagnosis was made on the basis of pregnancy-induced hypertension (systolic 140 mmHg and above, diastolic 90 mmHg and above). For controls, forty pregnant females (aged 15-35 years) who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy and were in their third trimester were taken. BMI was determined using Asian BMI criteria. Tests of normality were performed and the association between obesity and preeclampsia was determined using the Mann Whitney-U test.
Results: The results showed that the distribution of BMI varied among cases and controls, p<0.001. Moreover, stats showed, 33 obese among the 40 cases (preeclamptic), that is about 82.5%. And among the 40 controls (normotensives) there were 25 obese, that is, 62.5%.
Conclusions: Hence, it is concluded that preeclampsia is more common among obese women. Read More

To cite this article.[Salman, H., Hamid, N., Zafar, U., Marwat, S. & Khan, M. (2019). Association of Preeclampsia with Obesity. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 5(5), 34-37]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937). 

4

Original Research

Mitigating Thrombotic and Inflammatory Events in Sickle Cell Disease Using a Polyherbal Formulation

Akinbo B. David * • Bamisaye E. Oluwaseyi • Akinbo S. Yetunde • Akanni E. Olufemi

Abstract. The hypercoagulability, thromboembolic and endothelial complications associated with hemoglobinopathies often results in vascular blockage and occasionally death; which has, therefore, become a challenge to the physician over time. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of a polyherbal formulation on endothelial dysfunction, venous thrombosis, coagulation indices; D-dimer and inflammation using 2-butoxyethanol (2BE) -induced experimental model of thrombosis and vaso-occlusive disorders in female albino rats. Forty-two (42) healthy twelve-week old female albino rats were randomly selected for this study and divided into six groups, the rats were administered 2.5mL/kg of 2-BE p.o. and 1mL/Kg of 100mg/mL polyherbal formula for 15 days respectively pre- and post-2-BE administration. The levels of coagulation indices, D-dimer and inflammation marker were thereafter evaluated. Histological assessment of the liver was used to evaluate the expression of microvascular occlusion and ischemia. Polyherbal formulation treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced circulating D-dimer and C-reactive protein levels, as well as the platelet dyscrasias, associated endothelial dysfunction and venous thrombosis in the vessels by decreasing the levels of coagulation indices of the treated groups. There was also down-regulation of the expression of tissue necrosis in the liver of rats treated with 2-BE as a result of Polyherbal treatment. The polyherbal formula, therefore, shows potential for use in the management of conditions associated with thrombotic, thromboembolic disorders and the associated endothelial dysfunction. Molecular investigation of the bioactive components is however expedient to better understand the specific mechanisms of action. Read More

To cite this article. [David, A. B.., Oluwaseyi, B. E., Yetunde, A. S., & Olufemi, A. E. (2019). Mitigating Thrombotic and Inflammatory Events in Sickle Cell Disease Using a Polyherbal Formulation. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 5(4), 1-6]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

6

Original Research

Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation among University Students in the Middle East

Nida Mohammad Fayyaz • Rahma Beg

Abstract. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, in a survey done in 2009, 30% of university students admitted to feeling so depressed that it was difficult to function. University students in Middle Eastern countries are not an exception to Depression and other related symptoms, such as low mood and suicidal thoughts. Evidence reveals that university students show symptoms of Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation in most Middle Eastern Countries, such as Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan. Major Depression, also known as unipolar or major depressive disorder, is characterized by a feeling of continuous sadness and dejection. Along with low mood, persistent thoughts of suicide are also a common symptom of Major Depression. In this paper, we explore the prevalence of Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation among university students in the Middle Eastern countries. Regardless of the major, higher education level or gender, we are looking to analyze the existing research available to determine the extent of Major Depression, Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal thoughts in students enrolled in Middle Eastern universities. The studies that will be included are published in peer-reviewed literature. It is also important to mention that we would only be considering research papers published in the English Language. In addition to that, we are inclined to review literature published only within the last two decades, from 1998 to 2018. Read More

To cite this article. [Fayyaz, N. M. & Beg, R. (2019). Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Major Depression and Suicidal Ideation among University Students in the Middle East. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 5(3), 1-5]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

5

Original Research

Comparative Assessment of Dental Caries Status and Selected Salivary Constituents in Children with Beta Thalassemia

Venkatesh Babu* • Pooja M. Gowda • Ishadeep Kaur

ABSTRACT

Aim: To compare the dental caries status and selected salivary constituents in β thalassemic and healthy children.
Methods: A total of 100 children were included in the study, study group consisted of 50 diagnosed cases of Thalassemia attending the Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health, Bangalore and control group consisted of 50 healthy children who visited the Department of Pediatric and Preventive dentistry, V S dental college, Bangalore for routine dental check-up. Salivary constituents like calcium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium, urea and magnesium were assessed using salivary kits and dental caries was recorded according to WHO criteria 2013.
Results: Salivary calcium, sodium, urea and magnesium levels were lower and salivary potassium and phosphorous levels were higher in thalassemic children when compared to that of healthy children and the results were statistically significant only for salivary urea levels. There was a positive correlation between salivary parameters and dental caries.
Conclusion: Thalassemic children are more prone to dental caries which could be attributed to poor oral hygiene, poor motivation, endocrine problems, malocclusion, frequent blood transfusion, and immune deficiency. In the present study reduced salivary calcium, sodium, urea, and magnesium levels and increased salivary potassium and phosphorous levels in thalassemic children, could be the causative factors for the increased incidence of dental caries in these children. Read More

To cite this article. [Babu, V., Gowda, P. M. & Kaur, I. (2019). Comparative Assessment of Dental Caries Status and Selected Salivary Constituents in Children with Beta Thalassemia. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 5(3), 6-9]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

4

Original Research

Comparative Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate, Buffering Capacity, Resting pH and Dental Caries Status in Children Undergoing Chemotherapy

Venkatesh Babu* • Ishadeep Kaur • M. Padma • Pooja M. Gowda

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, and resting pH in children undergoing chemotherapy with healthy children and their association with dental caries.
Methods:
A total of 100 children were included in the study, study group consisted of 50 pre and post-chemotherapy cases reported at Kidwai Institute of oncology Bangalore and control group consisted of 50 healthy children who visited the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive dentistry, V S dental college for a routine dental check-up. Ethical clearance and signed written informed consent were obtained from both the Institutional ethical committee and parents/guardians of the children. Salivary parameters like flow rate, buffering capacity and resting pH was measured using Saliva-check Buffer kit (GC Europe). Clinical assessment was carried out using DMFT and dmft index by WHO criteria 1997.
Results:
Salivary flow rate, buffering capacity and resting pH was lower in children post-chemotherapy when compared to that of children before chemotherapy and healthy children, the results were statistically significant. There was a positive correlation between salivary parameters and dental caries.
Conclusion:
In the present study reduced salivary flow rate, low buffering capacity and reduced resting pH has been observed in children undergoing chemotherapy, which could be the causative factors for the increased incidence of dental caries in these children. Read More

To cite this article. [Babu, V., Padma, M. Kaur, I. & Gowda, P. M. (2019). Comparative Assessment of Salivary Flow Rate, Buffering Capacity, Resting pH and Dental Caries Status in Children Undergoing Chemotherapy. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 5(3), 10-15]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

6

Original Research

Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening among Jordanian Men in Amman

Ahmad M. Saleh * • Wasileh Petro-Nustas • Marjaneh Fooladi 

ABSTRACT

Background: Prostate cancer has become a major public health concern for primarily affecting older men. It is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and ranked second as the cause of cancer-related death. The main aim of the current study is to evaluate the awareness of Jordanian men age 40 and older regarding screening of prostate cancer.
Methods: It is a cross-sectional study involving 154 participants. A structured questionnaire detailing the biography, the knowledge of prostate cancer, the practice of screening by prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE).
Results: Findings showed that mean age of the participants is 53.1 (±9.52) years. 93.5% and 99.3% of Jordanian men had no experience with either of digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostatic specific-antigen (PSA) testing to detect cancer. Also, 68.2% of Jordanian men had no knowledge of such screening, while 12.7% had a good knowledge score. Among the participants, 97.4% had low to intermediate knowledge scores.
Conclusion: Authors conclude that there was a remarkable lack of knowledge of prostate cancer among Jordanian men aged 40 year and above. Prostate cancer screening and serum PSA test for screening is mostly unknown among them. Therefore, developing a prostate cancer educational plan seems to be essential to cover the knowledge gap. Read More

To cite this article. [Saleh, A. M., Petro-Nustas, W., & Fooladi, M. (2018). Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening among Jordanian Men in Amman. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(10), 1-4]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412- 8937).

4

Original Research

Feminism and The Role of Women Leadership

Pham Hoang Tu Linh

Abstract. Today, under the influence of the wave of industrial revolution 4 times, the woman gradually asserted its position, role as the leader, senior managers, consultants, senior experts. Within the scope of this paper, I would like to analyze the following: (i) Overview of feminist ideas; (ii) The development of feminism in the new context; (iii) Some of the typical leaders of countries in the world; (iv) Lessons learned for leadership women in Vietnam. Read More.

To cite this article. [Linh, P. H. T. (2018). Feminism and The Role of Women  Leadership. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(10), 5-11]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

7

Original Research

Prevalence and Factors Influencing Diabetic Foot Ulcers among Saudi Diabetic Patients Attending Diabetes Outpatient Clinics in the Governmental Hospitals in Riyadh City

Mohammed Saleh Binnwejim* • Talal Mohammed Alnahas • Khalid Mohaimeed Alharbi • Atheer Saleh Alhumaid

Abstract. Diabetes is a major health problem worldwide. It is related to the autoimmune destruction of beta cell in the pancreas that secretes insulin (type 1) or from insulin resistance and deficiency (type II); characterized by increased blood glucose level. Uncontrolled diabetes is associated with many serious long-term complications. including renal failure, retinopathy, neuropathy, foot ulcer, and amputation of diabetes. The current study aims to investigate Prevalence and Factors Influencing Diabetic Foot Ulcers Among Saudi Diabetic Patients Attending Diabetes Outpatient Clinics in the three Governmental Hospitals in Riyadh City through the distribution of a semi-structured questionnaire on a randomly selected sample (N=100). Study findings had indicated that 49% of the study participants had good knowledge level regarding diabetes and diabetic foot self-care practice was observed among (53%) of the patients. Moreover, Findings had shown that 19% of the Saudi diabetic patients attending diabetes outpatient clinics in the governmental hospitals in Riyadh city have diabetic foot ulcers. Furthermore, findings had shown that 63% of the diabetic patients with foot ulcers were from rural areas. The study recommended that about the risk of developing foot ulcers and the importance of the diet and weight reduction, regular blood pressure check and wearing the suitable fitting shoes. Read More.

To cite this article [Binnwejim, M. S., Alnahas, T. M., Alharbi, K. M., & Alhumaid, A. S., (2018). Prevalence and Factors Influencing Diabetic Foot Ulcers Among Saudi Diabetic Patients Attending Diabetes Outpatient Clinics in the Governmental Hospitals in Riyadh City. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(9), 20-26]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

7

Original Research

Assessment of the Awareness, Attitude, and Practice of Prisoners in Enugu to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT)

Chinyere Okeke * • Benjamin Uzochukwu • Ekpereka Nawfal • Evi Abada

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV/AIDS was described by WHO as a global health emergency as it is the single leading cause of death in adults. VCT combines counseling and testing into one service. It is an important strategy in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDs.

Design and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among all consenting prisoners in the dormitories selected by cluster random sampling of the dormitories in Enugu prison, Nigeria. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of HIV/AIDS, VCT and attitude to HIV/AIDS were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6.04.

Results: One hundred and thirty-five inmates participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 33.4 -+11.7 years. Only 48.6% of the tertiary educated respondents had gone for HIV test. All but one respondent had heard about HIV/AIDS 134 (99.3%) while 63.4% had heard about VCT. Average awareness score for HIV/AIDS is 75.0%, while awareness score for VCT is 38.0%. Family and friends were the highest sources of information on HIV/AIDS (34.6%) while mass media was the highest on VCT. If tested positive for HIV, 52.2% of the respondents would disclose their HIV status while 17.9% would like to spread the infection to others. Avoidance of extra-marital sex to prevent being infected was agreed on by 45%, while 5% had not made any behavioral change since hearing about HIV.

Conclusion: Prisoners, though incarcerated, are part of the society. There is a need for prevention programs in such corrective institutions as the risk of infection is high in such places. Read More

To cite this article [Okeke, C., Uzochukwu, B., Nawfal, E., & Abada, E., (2018). Assessment of the Awareness, Attitude, and Practice of Prisoners in Enugu to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT). The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(9), 27-33]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

7

Original Research

Effect of Honey Intake on Liver Enzymes and Functions

A. E. Alagwu* • S. A. Ezekwe • E. E. Ngwu • N. D. Alagwu

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: honey is consumed both as food and medicine. It is used as alternative medicine to treat burns, cuts, and abscesses in ancient time. It suffered a setback in modern medicine as alternative medicine as it lacked systematic scientific studies. It gained acceptance following its effectiveness where conventional treatments failed. There is a paucity of reports on the effect of honey on liver enzymes and functions. This is aimed at investigating the effect of honey on liver enzymes and function.

Methodology: The animals were separated into 4 groups (n=5). Groups 1 and 2 served as control and were fed with normal rat chow and water. Groups 3 and 4 served as test groups and were fed with rat chow, water, and honey. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Sera from groups 1 and 3 were collected for enzymes determination while bile from groups 2 and 4 was collected after laparotomy and common bile duct cannulation under anesthesia for biochemical analyses

Results: showed that honey has no significant effects on liver enzymes and bile bilirubin levels (P>0.05). Bile secretion rate was significantly reduced in the test compared with control (P<0.05). Bile Na+, HCO3- were not significantly different while bile K+, CL-were significantly reduced in the test compared with control (P<0.05). Bile cholesterol was significantly increased in the test compared with control(P<0.05) while plasma cholesterol was significantly reduced in the test compared with control(P<0.05).

Conclusion: It is therefore concluded that honey did not affect liver enzymes concentration, decreased rate of bile secretion, reduced bile potassium and chloride excretion, increased bile cholesterol excretion and reduced plasma cholesterol level. Read More

To cite this article [Alagwu, A. E., Ezekwe, S. A., Ngwu, E. E., & Alagwu, N. D. (2018). Effect of Honey Intake on Liver Enzymes and Functions. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(8), 8-10]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

3

Original Research

Anti-diabetic Activity of Rhizophora mucronata Leaves in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Animal Model

Anjan Adhikari * • Moumita Ray  • Tapas Kumar Sur  • Sharmistha Biswas  • Ranendra Kumar Roy  •  Alok Kumar Hazra  • Anup Kumar Das 

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder, where it is necessary to achieve and maintain good glycemic control. Though various achievements have been made in conventional and herbal medicines as anti-diabetic, there is a need to develop a well-defined treatment to manage the disease along with its multiple complications. Rhizophora mucronata, a true mangrove, abundant in the Sundarban region is traditionally used for its anti-diabetic properties but has very few scientific validations till date. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rhizophora mucronata Lam leaves on Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced Type 2 diabetic rats.

Methods: The mangrove leaves were collected, identified and extracted with ethanol (50%) in the Soxhlet apparatus. Extract treatment was done for 28 consecutive days in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced Type 2 diabetic rats. Body weight, blood glucose profiles were measured along with serum lipid profile and serum insulin. Histological studies of the pancreas were also observed.

Findings: The hydro-alcoholic extract of Rhizophora mucronata Lam leaves significantly reduced the blood glucose level. It also reduced the serum lipids in a dose-independent manner. Regular administration of extract maintained the normal serum insulin level. The study revealed Rhizophora mucronata leaves are a rich source of magnesium content and the Gas chromatographic study showed the presence of Squalene.

Conclusion: Present study revealed the beneficial potential of ahydro-alcoholic extract of Rhizophora mucronata Lam leaves as an anti-hyperglycemic agent having lipid-lowering action along with insulin mimicking property. Further research is required to identify the bioactive component responsible for its potent anti-diabetic action. Read More

To cite this article [Adhikari, A., Ray, M., Sur, T. K., Biswas, S, Roy, R. K., Hazra, A. K., & Das, A. K. (2018). Anti-Diabetic Activity of  Rhizophora Mucronata Leaves in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide Induced Animal Model. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(8), 1-7]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

7

Original Research

Global Invasion and Phenotypic Plasticity of The Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) Albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), An Invasive Vector of Human Diseases: Review of The Problem and The Evidence​

Ahmed Tabbabi 

Abstract: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is an important vector of viral and parasitic pathogens including dengue and chikungunya viruses. It is actually known as the most threatening invasive species in the world. In recent years these mosquitoes have invaded and adapted to both tropical and temperate climes where have been responsible for large outbreaks of diseases. The success keys of their invasion and establishment are mainly their phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to different environments. Its ecological plasticity and its superior competitive ability were reviewed and discussed based on the available published and unpublished reports. The consequences of their invasion on public health are also highlighted. Further, control measure plans related to the management and diseases transmitted by this invasive vector species are also discussed. Read More

To cite this article [Tabbabi, A. (2018). Global Invasion and Phenotypic Plasticity of The Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) Albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), An Invasive Vector of Human Diseases: Review of The Problem and The Evidence. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(4), 1-7]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

7

Original Research

Assessment of Stress Factors for Nursing Student Toward Training in the Critical Areas of Princess Basma Hospital​

Mohammad Abdul Karim Mansour Al Zu’bi* • Ghadeer Ahmad Falah Shawabka

                                                                                        ABSTRACT

Background: Stress has been defined as a barrier to concentration, problem-solving, decision making, and other necessary abilities for students’ learning; it also has some symptoms and illnesses in the students such as depression and anxiety.   

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess Stress for nursing students at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) toward training in the critical areas of Princess Basma Hospital. A study design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used in this study. Setting: conducted in Princess Basma educational hospital in three months from November 2015 until January 2016.  

Materials and Methods: a purposive sample to select the student (103) from three academic levels. An interviewing questionnaire to assess factors of stress related to workload, Factors of stress related to lack of support and involvement, Stress factors related to patient and family and scale of 1 to 5 describe your satisfaction of being a critical area nurse.   

Findings: The study results revealed that shortage of staff (2.17±0.39) and lack of time to spend with the patients (2.01±0.77) also revealed that support from college was the most stressing factor (2.64±0.39) and Results indicate that “patients’ families making unreasonable demand” was the highly estimated stress factors (2.18±0.67). while study sample participants are having a high satisfaction level about becoming a future nurse in the critical areas (2.52±0.60).   

Conclusion: The study concluded that shortage of staff, lack of support from the college, “patients’ families making unreasonable demand” and “being blamed for anything that goes wrong were the most stressing factor for the participants. The study recommended to design and implement health promotion program for all students nursing college at Jordan University of Science and Technology about prevention of Stress factors toward training in the critical areas. Read More

To cite this article [Al Zu’bi, M. A. M. & Shawabka, G. A. F. (2018). Assessment of Stress Factors for Nursing student toward training in the critical areas of Princess Basma Hospital. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(4), 8-12]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937)

5

Original Research

Effect of Fears on Psychosocial Adjustments and Self Esteem of Children Aged (12-16) Years​

Mohammad Abdul Karim Mansour Al Zu’bi* • Ghadeer Ahmad Falah Shawabka

                                                                                        ABSTRACT

Background: Fear had been defined as the emergence of symptoms of multiple anxiety as a case of emotional and physical or objective.   

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the fears and their relationship to psychological and social Adjustment and self-esteem in children in the age group of 12 to 16 years of both sexes, male and female, in the Irbid region schools in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.  

Materials and Methods: a cross sectional descriptive study had been performed on a sample of 500 school children ranging in age between 12 to 16 years from the public schools of Irbid governorate, northern of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researcher investigating the socio-demographic factors and the psycho-social adjustment along with Rosenberg self-esteem scale had been administered over the study participants.   

Findings: The study results revealed that 50% of the study participants were having fears that are less than average. While there was almost 0.4% with severe fears, 51% of the sample was within the Pass category of the Psychosocial adjustment, and 57% of the children were passing Self-esteem test. Moreover, findings of the current study had shown that there is a correlation between children fear and their psychosocial adjustment level. About 111 students were characterized as poor psychosocially adjusted, while 134 students showed good to the excellent level of psychosocial adjustment. Socio-cultural factors result showed that the positive significant relationship is detected between residence area (Urban and rural), Income level, parents educational level and occupation.   

Conclusion: study findings conclude that: There was a statistically significant difference in fears among boys and girls, whereas girls exhibited higher fear intensity compared to boy’s sample. There is a significant relation of fears in children aged 12 to 16 years, to their psychosocial adjustment and self-esteem degree. Psychosocial adjustment and self-esteem are correlated positively and significantly affected by socio-economic and socio-cultural factors of the children.   Read More

To cite this article [Al Zu’bi, M. A. M. & Shawabka, G. A. F.  (2018). Effect of Fears on Psychosocial Adjustments and Self Esteem of Children Aged (12-16) Years. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(4), 13-20]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937

8

Original Research

Breast Tuberculosis: A Disease not to be Forgotten

Singh K. Sudhir * • Huda Farhanul  • Rao Shalinee  • Pal Shweta 

                                                                                      ABSTRACT

Introduction: Breast tuberculosis is a rare manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis which accounts for less than 0.1% of breast conditions in developed countries but reaches 3–4% in regions where the disease is endemic like India and Africa. It appears mostly in women of reproductive age who are multipara or lactating. The most common presentation is that of a tumor in the breast with or without ulcer or pus discharging sinus. Differential diagnosis includes breast cancer and chronic abscess.

Materials and Methods: We report a case series of breast tuberculosis that were treated in a tertiary center. After a diagnosis of breast tuberculosis based on FNAC and histological finding, all the patients received anti-tubercular treatment and followed monthly to see the response.

Result: On the triple assessment of breast lump, diagnosis of breast tuberculosis was confirmed by FNAC in two patient and Tru-cut biopsy and histological examination in four patients. One patient with biopsy report of necrotizing mastitis was labeled as breast tuberculosis on the basis of clinical suspicion. All patients showed a good response to ATT on monthly follow up.

Conclusion: Although breast tuberculosis is a rare disease and can be misdiagnosed as breast cancer, a high index of clinical suspicion should be kept in mind during evaluation of breast lump, non-healing breast ulcer, and chronic sinuses. Early diagnosis based on clinical features and supplanted by FNAC and Tru-cut biopsy is suggested. Anti-tubercular therapy is effective. Read More

To cite this article [Sudhir, S. K., Farhanul, H., Shalinee, R., & Shweta, P. (2018). Breast Tuberculosis: A Disease not to be Forgotten. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(6), 6-10]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

5

Original Research

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Outcome of Pregnancy among Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic in North Western Nigeria

Abdullahi Umar Adoke * • Constance Egondu Shehu • Emmanuel Ikechukwu Nwobodo  Bissallah Ahmed Ekele  • Anas Sabir  • Amina Gambo Umar 

                                                                                       ABSTRACT

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. It affects 2-10% of pregnancies and there appears to be a rising trend in its prevalence worldwide.

Objective: The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gestational diabetes as well as the outcome of pregnancy among 207 consecutively recruited pregnant women. GDM was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria. All relevant data were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was relatively high 7.7%. Advancing maternal age (p=0.000), high parity (p=0.000) and previous history of macrosomia (RR=3.056, CI 1.208-7.728, p=0.015) were risk factors for GDM. Multivariate analysis showed that only advance maternal age as a risk factor was statistically significant across all age (pvalue >0.000).

Conclusion: The outcome of pregnancy was favorable among GDM patients. Thus, multidisciplinary management of GDM patients should be upheld. Read More

To cite this article [Adoke, A. U., Shehu, C. E., Nwobodo, E. I., Ekele, B. A… Umar, A. G. (2018). Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Outcome of Pregnancy among Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic in North-Western Nigeria. The Journal of Middle East and North Africa Sciences, 4(6), 27-32]. (P-ISSN 2412- 9763) – (e-ISSN 2412-8937).

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